Additionally, no studies identified in this review compared reasons for not completing treatment between abstinence-focused and nonabstinence treatment. For example, in AUD treatment, individuals with both goal choices demonstrate significant improvements in drinking-related outcomes (e.g., lower percent drinking days, fewer heavy drinking days), alcohol-related problems, and psychosocial functioning (Dunn & Strain, 2013). Broadly speaking, there are at least three primary contexts in which genetic variation could influence liability for relapse during or following treatment. First, in the context of pharmacotherapy interventions, relevant genetic variations can impact drug pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, thereby moderating treatment response (pharmacogenetics).
- His research, on alcohol and other drug abuse, isn’t completed yet, but he says, “We’re getting very positive results.”
- Encouragement and understanding from friends, family, or support groups can help individuals overcome the negative emotional aftermath of the AVE.
- Cravings can intensify in settings where the substance is available and use is possible.
- (b) Restrained eaters whose diets were broken by a milkshake preload showed increased activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) compared to restrained eaters who did not consume the preload and satiated non-dieters .
- Also, many studies that have examined potential mediators of outcomes have not provided a rigorous test  of mechanisms of change.
This approach is exemplified by the “urge surfing” technique , whereby clients are taught to view urges as analogous to an ocean wave that rises, crests, and diminishes. Rather than being overwhelmed by the wave, the goal is to “surf” its crest, attending to thoughts and sensations as the urge peaks and subsides. The client’s appraisal of lapses also serves as a pivotal intervention point in that these reactions can determine whether a lapse escalates or desists. Establishing lapse management plans can aid the client in self-correcting soon after a slip, and cognitive restructuring can help clients to re-frame the meaning of the event and minimize the AVE . A final emphasis in the RP approach is the global intervention of lifestyle balancing, designed to target more pervasive factors that can function as relapse antecedents.
Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Relapse
For example, the therapist can use the metaphor of behavior change as a journey that includes both easy and difficult stretches of highway and for which various “road signs” (e.g., “warning signals”) are available to provide guidance. According to this metaphor, learning to anticipate and plan for high-risk situations during recovery from alcoholism is equivalent to having a good road map, a well-equipped tool box, a full tank of gas, and a spare tire in good condition for the journey. The past 20 years has seen growing acceptance of harm reduction, evidenced in U.S. public health policy as well as SUD treatment research. Thirty-two states now have legally authorized SSPs, a number which has doubled since 2014 (Fernández-Viña et al., 2020). Regarding SUD treatment, there has been a significant increase in availability of medication for opioid use disorder, especially buprenorphine, over the past two decades (opioid agonist therapies including buprenorphine are often placed under the “umbrella” of harm reduction treatments; Alderks, 2013).
This does not mean that 12-step is an ineffective or counterproductive source of recovery support, but that clinicians should be aware that 12-step participation may make a client’s AVE more pronounced. Therapists also can enhance self-efficacy by providing clients with feedback concerning their performance on other new tasks, even those that appear unrelated to alcohol use. In general, success in accomplishing even simple tasks (e.g., showing up for appointments on time) can greatly enhance a client’s feelings of self-efficacy.
Tips for Rebuilding Life After Rehab
Lastly, we review existing models of nonabstinence psychosocial treatment for SUD among adults, with a special focus on interventions for drug use, to identify gaps in the literature and directions for future research. We identify a clear gap in research examining nonabstinence psychosocial treatment for drug use disorders and suggest that increased research attention on these interventions represents the logical next step for the field. Efforts to develop, test and refine theoretical models are critical to enhancing the understanding and prevention of relapse [1,2,14]. A major development in this respect was the reformulation of Marlatt’s cognitive-behavioral relapse model to place greater emphasis on dynamic relapse processes .
- The RP model has been studied among individuals with both AUD and DUD (especially Cocaine Use Disorder, e.g., Carroll, Rounsaville, & Gawin, 1991); with the largest effect sizes identified in the treatment of AUD (Irvin, Bowers, Dunn, & Wang, 1999).
- There is less research examining the extent to which moderation/controlled use goals are feasible for individuals with DUDs.
- A possible explanation for these differences is that health practitioners base their knowledge on their experience with many clients, and therefore generate and rate statements based on the average person (seeing ‘the bigger picture’).
- To do so, the mean importance of each perceived predictor was calculated based on the overall mean importance ratings of the underlying statements.
- In Marlatt’s model, you go through a period of abstinence before experiencing a high-risk situation, which can be any stressors in your life.
It is hoped that more severely mentally ill people will obtain life-saving treatment and pathways to better housing. If you are at a gathering where provocation arises because alcohol or other substances are available, leave. Cravings can intensify in settings where the substance is available and use is possible. For example, I am a failure (labeling) and will never be successful with abstaining from drinking, eating healthier, or exercising (jumping to conclusions). Taylor may think, “All that good work down the drain, I am never going to be able to keep this up for my life.” Like Jim, this may also trigger a negative mindset and a return to unhealthy eating and a lack of physical exercise. Brie graduated as a high school valedictorian with a major in Health Technologies and continued her studies at Springfield Technical Community College with a focus on healthcare.
Marlatt’s relapse prevention model: Historical foundations and overview
They see setbacks as failures because the accompanying disappointment sets off cascades of negative thinking and feeling, on top of the guilt and shame that most already feel about having succumbed to addiction. The belief that addiction is a disease can make people feel hopeless about changing behavior and powerless to do so. Seeing addiction instead as a deeply ingrained and self-perpetuating habit that was learned and can be unlearned doesn’t mean it is easy to recover from addiction—but that it is possible, and people do it every day. It is in accord with the evidence that the longer a person goes without using, the weaker the desire to use becomes. Note that these script ideas were pulled from a UN training on cognitive behavioral therapy that is available online.
Like the Sobells, Marlatt showed that reductions in drinking and harm were achievable in nonabstinence treatments (Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2002). Expectancy research has recently started examining the influences of implicit cognitive processes, abstinence violation effect generally defined as those operating automatically or outside conscious awareness [54,55]. Recent reviews provide a convincing rationale for the putative role of implicit processes in addictive behaviors and relapse [54,56,57].